Logo Universal Dependencies

Universal Dependencies (UD)

  • a framework for consistent annotation of grammar (parts of speech, morphological features, and syntactic dependencies) across different human languages.
  • cross-linguistically consistent treebank annotation for many languages
  • The annotation scheme is based on
    • an evolution of (universal) Stanford dependencies
    • Google universal part-of-speech tags (Petrov)
    • the Interset interlingua for morphosyntactic tagsets (Zeman)
  • provide a universal inventory of categories and guidelines to facilitate consistent annotation of similar constructions across languages, while allowing language-specific extensions when necessary.

UD Guidelines


UD Languages


Czech treebanks

  • PDT
  • FicTree
  • PUD
  • CAC
  • CLTT


Language documentation


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